Monday, January 20, 2020
Potassium Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Potassium is a vital element in the human body. Potassium had never been distinguished between sodium until the eighteenth century. Before potassium was recognized as an element, potassium carbonate was mixed with animal fat to make soap. It was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in England, in 1807. Sir Davy was able to isolate potassium using electrolysis. Potassium was the first metal isolated by this procedure. Today, it is still not found free in nature. It is obtained by electrolysis of chloride or hydroxide. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Potassium is a solid silvery white element. It is soft and can be cut with a knife. Potassium is the least dense known metal, besides lithium. It is the seventh most abundant element. It makes up about 1.5% by weight of the earth's crust. It decomposes in water because of the hydrogen. It usually catches fire during reaction with water. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Potassium is an essential component for plant growth. Potassium is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than most other mineral elements. Potassium is supplied to plants by soil minerals, organic materials, and inorganic fertilizer. Potassium is not found in organic combination with plant tissues. Potassium plays an essential role in the metabolic processes of plants. Potassium also is essential in carbohydrate metabolism, a process by which energy is obtained from sugar. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Potassium is one of the most important elements in human diet. To begin with, potassium works with sodium for various reasons. For example, it helps to regulate body waste, control heart rhythms, and assist in reducing high blood pressure. It also aids in clear thinking by sending oxygen to the brain. This element is crucial to the maintenance of the nervous system and the muscular system. Potassium is an electrolyte, and therefor regulates the balance of fluids inside and outside the cells, including blood. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The human body needs potassium to function. The body may become short of potassium in many situations. Excessive physical activity, severe cases of stress, drinking of alcohol or coffee all consume the potassium in the body leaving the person with a deficiency of the mineral. As a result of this deficiency severe fatigues, muscle weakness, nervous disorders, cardiac arrest, and poor reflexes can occur. Too much potassium in the body may result in dehydration. The kidneys can retain or get rid of too much potassium. Either extreme is dangerous for the body. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If potassium is such a vital nutrient to the human body it has to be a mineral that can be found in a regular diet.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The aim of this essay is to explore and discuss the view that mechanistic and bureaucratic organisations will probably struggle to encourage organisational learning. The structure and learning perspectives of organisational analysis will be used as academic lenses to view and propel this discussion. Relevant theories will be applied to analyse my own organisational experiences (direct and indirect). Examples derived from case studies of organisational situations will be looked at so as to make the discussion more cohesive. To begin with definitions of the perspectives in question will be given as to make understanding of the different types of organisations clearer. According to Drummond (2000) mechanical imagery depicts organisations as static machine-like entities operating in a steady and predictable manner. Likewise, the metaphor of bureaucracy suggests that people in organisations are bounded by rules, job descriptions and organisation charts. It is important to note that TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy is founded upon mechanical imagery. The key concepts in the structural perspective are based on TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s principles of scientific management and WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal bureaucracy. Taylor (1911) formalised the principles of scientific management into four objectives which are division of labour, one best way, scientific selection and training and monitor performance. In TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s view, organisations need clearly articulated objectives, sharp divisions of labour, specified hierarchies and responsibilities and formalised systems of control. Taylor saw people as near-automatons (robots), potentially troublesome perhaps, but basically programmable given proper supervision and appropriate incentives. In TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, the existence of contradiction and ambiguity in organisations were signs of managerial weakness, something which could and should be eliminated. His work is basically a recipe for clarity and control (Drummond, 2000). According to Taylor (1911), output could be increased not by requiring operatives to work harder, but by showing them how to work more efficiently. Taylor came up with scientific management for shop floor workers but I have realised that even the fast food industry has adopted the same kind of set-up. Whilst working in McDonalds on the BigMac grill there was a systematic approach to work and it was timed, 1 Ã¢â¬â place buns in toaster, 2 Ã¢â¬â after thirty seconds place burgers on grill, 3 Ã¢â¬â dress the buns, 4 Ã¢â¬â place burgers on buns. This routine was done by two people and we would do this all day. Steps 1 and 3 would be done by one person and steps 2 and 4 by another; this was done so that the person handling meat stayed there and not touch the buns. It was like an assembly line because the burgers moved from one employee to the other doing different things but to achieve the same outcome. Constant monitoring was in place as we were given stars according to progress or put simply as to how many different stations you can work at, e. g. a star for each station Ã¢â¬â tills, chips or chicken. The layout of the kitchen looked like one conveyor belt going round and round. Critics have mentioned that mechanistic approaches work well when the task is straightforward, stable environment, replication, precision and compliance. All these attributes are greatly present in McDonalds and the other fact was that we had to clock in and out we were expected to behave like machines to be predictable and efficient. Extreme forms of the machine metaphor of organisations are seen in the bureaucracies and mass production factories Ã¢â¬â of which McDonalds is a bit of both. Weber based his ideal bureaucracy model on legal and absolute authority, logic and order. In Weber's idealised organisational structure, the responsibilities for workers are clearly defined and behaviour is tightly controlled by policies, procedures and rules. To a certain extent organisations should have some sort of bureaucracy and there are a number of bureaucratic structures. Morgan (1993) mentioned that the types of bureaucracy are rigid (person at the top), bureaucracy with task forces and project teams (guided by strict procedures) and bureaucracy with senior management team. The main idea that Weber brought about was the rational type of bureaucracy which is characterised by specialisation, authority hierarchy, operating rules and procedures and impersonality. Now looking at Taylor the characteristics of his organisation are division of management and labour, scientification of work and specialisation of tasks. It is not difficult to note that Taylor was a big influence on Weber and we can conclude that in these types of organisations decision-making is based on fairness and strict procedures. Weber's theory of organisations reflected an impersonal attitude towards the people in the organisation. Indeed, the work force, with its personal frailties and imperfections, was regarded as a potential detriment to the efficiency of any system. WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of rationality was best developed further by Ritzer and coined a new term for it Ã¢â¬Å"McDonaldisationÃ¢â¬ . According to Ritzer (2007), a society characterised by rationalisation is one which emphasises efficiency, predictability, calculability, substitution of nonhuman for human technology and control over uncertainty. The process of McDonaldisation takes a task and breaks it down into smaller tasks. This is repeated until all tasks have been broken down to the smallest possible level. The resulting tasks are then rationalized to find the single most efficient method for completing each task. All other methods are then deemed inefficient and discarded. McDonalds have standardised their product to make it more efficient, e. g. McDonalds is the same wherever you go Ã¢â¬â a big mac is still a big mac, we know what to expect in a McDonalds and we know how to behave as well because of that predictability. McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ environment is structured in a way that there are no surprises to customers. Efficiency is brought about by looking for the best route to getting the best output with least amount of resources and costs i. e. he grills in McDonalds cook meat within seconds and one person needed to operate a grill at any time. This brings us to the notion of control and calculability, there is great reliability on technology rather than humans and emphasis is on quantity rather than quality. Clearly these two approaches to viewing organisations are sort of out-dated and can be detrimental to the progress of an organisation in this day and age. Hence organisations are requi red to be flexible and evolve and also be able to cope with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s pressures. Organisational learning (OL) is the way forward and aims at making sure that organisations are well equipped for the ever changing market place. Weick and Roberts (1993) mentioned that OL consists of interrelating actions of individuals, which are their Ã¢â¬Å"heedful interrelationÃ¢â¬ which results in a Ã¢â¬Å"collective mindÃ¢â¬ . Organisational Learning as the ability of an organisation to gain insight and understanding from experience through experimentation, observation, analysis, and a willingness to examine both successes and failures. Heedful interrelating is made possible via contribution, representation, and subordination. Organisational learning can be done and have a finite outcome. Organisations need to work faster and adapt quickly if they are to survive the current and turbulent environmental changes. Argyrils and Schon identified different types of organisational learning single and double loop learning. Single loop learning is sometimes referred to the lowest level because it only responds to change by detecting errors and then modifying strategies. Double loop learning is an advanced form of single loop learning meaning that it questions if operating norms are appropriate whereas in single loop there is embededness of culture and learned habits become resistant to change and learning. In other words double loop learning is concerned with the why and how to change the organisation while single loop learning is concerned with accepting change without questioning the underlying assumptions and core beliefs. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organisational world knowledge has become really important. It is contributing to high value products and services. The rate of learning has to be greater than the rate of change and learning is the responsibility for everyone in the organisation. Organisational learning links nicely with learning organisations, this type of organisation continuously transforms itself and its context. Ã¢â¬Å"A learning organization is an organisation skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights. Ã¢â¬ (Garvin, 1993, p. 80. ) Fincham and Rhodes (2005) mentioned that knowledge management involves organisations developing practices and policies that reward, recognise and harness the storehouse of knowledge of its people continuously innovate and remain creative using brain power as a source of competitive advantage. With the latter in mind it is wise to judge that the old ways of analysing organisations notably the structural perspective hinders organisational learning in a number of ways. Taking McDonalds as the case study it is clear that employees are merely resources which are there for use to maximise profits. Deskilling of workers because of the monotonous and repetitive work which can lead to stress because of emotional labour. Boredom and disassociation with task will creep in leading to alienation and lack of commitment. More routine and rigorous structure limits a lot because it is not good in times of change. There is limited space for creativity, innovation and flexibility because of the fragmented problem solving approach and the disconnected roles and communication. Low level of commitment and loyalty has seen a high staff turnover at McDonalds. Organisations are made up of human beings not machines. Employee alienation and customer dehumanisation is not attractive in any organisation. Bureaucratic organisations will struggle to encourage organisational learning because of their hierarchical structure. Management seem to have all the decision-making powers and this might not sit comfortably with the rest of the employees as they are disempowered. This obviously leads to inefficient decision-making, slow response due to the chain of command and politics is rife. Several critics have noted that the learning organisation model implies that managers must become interested as never before in the process of learning, as well as the results. The central statement of the learning organisation is in two parts: (1) that a key success factor for any business in the age of global competition is its ability to innovate continuously, appropriately, and faster than its rivals, and (2) that can only happen through unleashing the untapped capabilities of all its employees. The learning organisation is definitely a new and significant paradigms shift from the traditional bureaucratic view because it emphasises process over structure and contains a number of components. These components include: a vision of better organisational life, a body management practice guidelines and a network of experts and advocates, a set of mental models regarding individual and social psychology, the sociology of organisations and change and finally a concern for values of wholeness (in preference to fragmentation) and respect for people (Wheatley, 1992). Cravens et al (1996) also noted that organisations need to shift away from the old structural perspective because of the new highly dynamic environments. Many corporations are reducing management layers and organisational bureaucracy in pursuit of rightsizing or the horizontal organisation, concurrent actions include re-engineering business processes followed by organisational redesign and greater use of multifunctional teams, central issues are obtaining precision, flexibility and speed in the execution of programmes and strategies. This shift has also seen the new approach develop powerful information systems and automated knowledge capture permit the empowerment of employees in the management of business processes, priorities are more customer satisfaction and retention through greater organisational responsiveness and competitive advantage for the reformed organisation comes from added-value, created through knowledge feedback and exploitation (Cravens et al, 1996). To be effective in the workplace, we must be better learners; we must become more open to alien ideas and more humble about our own limitations. Tools and techniques cannot be separated from the vision and the values of the learning organisation. (Kofman and Senge, 1995). The learning organization approach is not just about improving productivity and work satisfaction it is also about the fundamental ethics of the workplace and the marketplace. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs have to be considered and should people not be seen as productivity factors; this holistic approach sure does improve conditions and output. A happy worker is a motivated worker. I only lasted six months at McDonalds and the reasons for that are outlined in the essay. References Argyris, C. (1993) On Organizational Learning. Oxford: Blackwell Business/Blackwell Publishers. Cravens, D. W. (1996) New organisational Forms for Competing in Highly Dynamic Environments: The Network Paradigm. British Journal of Management 7: p203-217 Drummond, H. (2000) Introduction to Organisational Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press Encyclopaedia of Small Business (2007) Organization Theory. Encyclopedia. com [Accessed on 12 Dec 2011] http://www. encyclopedia. com Fincham, R and Rhodes P. (2005) Principles of Organizational Behaviour, 4th Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press Garvin, David A. (1993) Ã¢â¬Å"Building a Learning Organization,Ã¢â¬ Harvard Business Review, July-Aug: p. 78-91. Kofman, F and Peter, S. (1995) Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations, in Learning Organizations. Sarita Chawla & John Renesch, (eds. ), Portland, Productivity Press. Morgan, G. (1993) Imaginisation, London: Sage Ritzer, G. (2007) The McDonaldisation of Society, 5th ed. London: Pine Forge Press Senge, P. (1990) The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organisation, New York: Doubleday. Senge P et al. (1994) The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook, New York: Doubleday Taylor, F. W. (1911) The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Harper and Row. Wheatley, M. J. (1992) Leadership and the New Science. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Executive Summary: With the increase in globalization, integration of world markets, and rise in the concept of the importance of International Project Management has increased many folds. Project management is a discipline that applies various tools, concepts, principles, practices, activities that help in improving the profitability of organization and results in overall growth. It helps organizations working in various parts of the world in integrating there operations and achieving goals. The project management concepts are based on principles of rationality in human behavior, and similarity of working culture over organizations that is a bit unrealistic due to differences in Environmental Factors such as legal, politicalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Project Site Selection Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 9 6. Selection and Training for International Projects Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..10 7. Managing in the Global Organization Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.10 8. Managing in the Environmental Scan Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦11 9. Managing the Competitive Strategy Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦11 10. Global Projects: Management Framework Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦12 11. Proposed Project Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.13 12. Mile Tower ..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦15 13. Bechtel Company Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦15 14. Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..17 Refernces Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..19 . Introduction International project management Global Trade and investment environment have been existed in which to provide the needs of other countries or those who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t such product in their own country. Thus, exporting and importing have been developed or world trade has been developed. 1. It emphasizes the interplay between the proportions in which the factor of production such as, land, labor, and capital are available in different countries and the proportions in which they are needed for producing particular goods. Firms that pursue an international strategy try to create value by transferring valuable skills and products to foreign markets where indigenous competitors lack those skills and products. Most international firms have created value by transferringShow MoreRelatedInternational Journal Of Project Management785 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAction in Inter-Organizational Networks. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1). o Munk-Madsen, A. (1986). Project Evaluation - Setting the Problem. DAIMI Report Series, 15(216). o Leong, C. (1991). Accountability and project management: a convergence of objectives. International Journal of Project Management, 9(4), pp.240-249. o Mikkelsen, H. (1990). Quality of project work and project management. International Journal of Project Management, 8(3), pp.138-143. o Texter, K., WaymachRead MoreInternational Project Management ( Oil Gas )3233 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesCOURSEWORK COVER SHEET FOR THE ATTENTION OF LECTURER: Dr. Michael Tong (PLEASE PRINT) Student Name: Ngozi Sam-moseli Matriculation Number:S1421753 Year of Study: 2014-15 Programme Title: International Project Management (Oil Gas) Assignment Title: Project Planning (PM coursework 2) Module: Project Management (MMN221207-14-B) Student Declaration This piece of work is not plagiarised. It is my original work and has not been submitted elsewhere in fulfilment of the requirements of this or any otherRead MoreInternational Project Management1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Project managers must take into account the unique financial aspects of their projects. 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Friday, December 27, 2019
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Level 2 Unit two: Principles of providing administrative services Section 1 Ã¢â¬â Understand how to make and receive telephone calls 1. Complete the table below with descriptions of at least two different features of a telephone system and how / when they would be used. Feature How / when used 1. Computer telephone integration This option links two systems together, the computer and the telephone systems. When someone calls up, the telephone rings and a dialog box will appear on the computer screen with options for answering it. 2. VoIP This option allows the business to enjoy free calls and voicemails sent by the internet. Therefore it needs a fast and reliable internet connection.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For instance websites such as www.courier- comparison.co.uk will offer us different options of shipping an item. We just enter the dimensions and weight of the item plus how soon this item needs to be delivered. Royal Mail is the major postal service provider in the UK and it is always a good idea to check price on their website first before going for others as their prices are usually more competitive. Section 3 Ã¢â¬â Understand how to use different types of office equipment 1. Describe the main types of equipment found in offices and how they are used. Include examples of at least three different types of office equipment. 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It could be highly confidentialRead MoreEssay on Nvq Level 2 Business Admin Unit 2011903 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesUnit 201 Manage own performance in a business environment 1.1 Outline guidelines, procedures codes of practice relevant to personal work There are a number of guidelines and procedures in place to enable me to do my job not only to the best of my ability but in a professional manner. Whilst on the reception area, there are procedures that need to be followed relating to various aspects of the job including correct procedures to greet visitors, answer the telephone, dealing with incoming and outgoingRead MoreHuman Resources Management : Hrm1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesobjectives. HRM is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. One of the new roles assigned to HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate valueÃ¢â¬ (Heathfield, What Is Human Resource Management?). What do professional in the HR department do and whatRead MoreA Project Report On India Technological University1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesObjectiveÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 4 2 Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 5 2.1 Background DetailsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 5 2.2 Overall DescriptionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 5 2.3 Tools and TechnologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 5 3 Requirement AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 14 3.1 Functional RequirementsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 14 3.2Nonfunctional RequirementsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...... 18 4 SchedulingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 20 5 Data Flow DiagramÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 23 5.1 Context level DiagramÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read MoreRole Of Office Manager And Budgetary Control1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTable of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 LEVELS OF DECISION MAKING 3 ROLE OF OFFICE MANAGER 4 FINANCIAL PLANNING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL 5 EFFECTIVE DELEGATION 6 LEADERSHIP MODELS 7 REFERENCES 8 Ã¢â¬Æ' Levels of decision making Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strategic decisions: This level of decision making comes from the top down. These decisions are long term and involve the vision of the company. This type of decision making is usually made at management level. Long-term forecasts of business turnover set against likely market conditionsRead MoreMcdonalds Swot Analysis1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTask 2 (LO2: .1, 2.2, 2.3, M1and Q2.1 According to BPP Learning Media (2013, p.39) training needs are the gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Organisational Level Training needs at organisational level is based on goals, targets, planning, and business needs. This can be achieved by assessing the internal and external environment, also known as SWOT analysis. In the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own business McDonalds , most of these decisions is made by my businessRead MoreDeveloping Pizza Delivery Management System1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages ABSTRACT The aim of the project is to develop Pizza Delivery Management System. This will help make order entry easier, make customers happier and help build a good business. The Customer Details Can Store in database along with their ordering preferences. Then Send The Items into The Particular Customer. THE EXISTING SYSTEM The existing process making the order through mobile. Customer can request all this done through as manually that means though physical interaction through phone. In thisRead MoreThe Data Framework And The Client1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof the information into a PC based framework. This configuration is imperative to keep away from mistakes in the information data process and demonstrate the right heading to the administration for getting right data from the electronic framework. 2. It is accomplished by making easy to use screens for the information passage to handle substantial volume of information. The objective of outlining information is to make information passage simpler and to be free from blunders. The information passageRead MoreContribution Margins for Lewis Company949 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprepare the contribution margin statement it is necessary to assess which costs are variable and which are fixed. The variable costs are those which are incurred as each unit is produced, varying with the production levels, while the fixed costs remain the same regardless of the level of production (Bragg, 2012). The foundation of contribution costing is to deduct the variable costs from the revenue that is realized for each unit sold, this is known as the contribution as it is this surplus of revenue
Thursday, December 19, 2019
The heritage Assessment Tool is a questioner design to assist individual to determine his or her ethnic, religious and cultural background in relationship with health, illness and diseases. Heritage and culture are different just like individual fingerprint. When looking at someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage and tradition, it consists of methods used to maintain health, protect health, and restore health. These concepts deal with personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical, mental and spiritual belief. Every individual has their own heritage, and this is very different among different cultures. ( Spector 2009). Heritage assessment tool in combination with questions relating to health and illness belief and practices was helpful in helping individualsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦During illness or crisis, Middle Easterners rely heavily on persons in their family instead of trying to Page 5 cope individually. A person seeking medical care may be accompanied by one or more persons who they expect to be present during the examination or interview, who will listen carefully and often answer for the patient. Usually the oldest person will feel offended if not invited into the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s office. People close to the patient consider themselves duty bound to be there. Family and friends are expected never to leave a patient alone and to constantly shower care and attention. Even though this does not apply to every family, it is usually appropriate to speak to a family spokesman. The oldest and the most educated is usually the one with the most authority to speak and answer questions for the patient. Bad news is often not given to the patient directly. It was also gathered that people from Middle East may tend to resist disclosing personal information to strangers, including healthcare professionals. Data for health history may not be willingly given and request for information may be viewed with some suspicion until it clear why the questions are being asked but once the trust is established, personal information is given more freely. Middle Easterners generally have respect for western medicine but they may believe in some superstitious cause ofShow MoreRelatedHeritage Notation Assessment4283 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesThe affects of Heritage notation orders Detailed analysis 23rd April 2012 Contents Abstract Introduction What is Heritage Significance? What is a Heritage notation order? What are the benefits of heritage listing? What does a heritage listing entail? How is the community affected? What are the disadvantages of heritage listing? The role of local government planning. The role of the Commonwealth. The positive impact of heritage listing on value. The negative impact of heritage listing on valueRead MoreHeritage Assessment1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Heritage Assessment: Comparing Cultural Health Traditions Monica V. Poehner Grand Canyon University: Family Centered Health Promotion November 16, 2013 Heritage Assessment: Comparing Cultural Health Traditions Culture and heritage are the properties that make up a way of life for a specific population. As referenced by South African History Online (n.d.), Ã¢â¬Å"Culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of societyRead MoreHeritage Assessment1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshead: THE HERITAGE ASSESSMENT OF HISPANIC, ASIAN AND The Heritage Assessment of Hispanic, Asian and African American Families B.Cohran Grand Canyon University The Heritage Assessment of Hispanic, Asian and African American Families The Heritage Assessment Tool (HST) is used to Ã¢â¬Å"investigate a given patientÃ¢â¬â¢s or your own ethnic, cultural, and religious heritageÃ¢â¬ ¦it can help determine how deeply a given person identifies with a particular traditionÃ¢â¬ . (prenhall.com). This assessment of 29 questionsRead MoreHeritage Assessment1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHeritage assessment Danielle Sumner Grand Canyon University Heritage assessment Introduction The Heritage Assessment Tool can be adopted as a dependable tool to gauge, health maintenance, restoration and safeguard of personal, cultural beliefs. The adoption of health assessment tool helps meet the prerequisites of diverse patient populations to offer quality all-inclusive care. The following paper reviews the assessment of three culturally dissimilar families, and demonstrate how a nurse wouldRead MoreHeritage Assessment1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHeritage Assessment By, Genethia Guerrero Grand Canyon University: NRS-429V Family Health Promotion 04/17/2011 Jose Alejandro Every individual has a cultural heritage. Each culture views the world differently. Culture is an inherited characteristic and includes knowledge, beliefs, customs, skills, likes and dislikes. The fundamental role of cultural heritage is uniting, respecting the diversities and brings people together to face the future by informing, perceiving and give importance toRead MoreHeritage Assessment1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Influence of Heritage on Current Culture Evaluation of how family subscribes to these traditions and practices is offered in detail, while offering insight and/or reflection.It is essential for nurses to provide culturally sensitive care to each and every patient in order to establish repor and maintain a safe working relationship with each individual. To provide culturally sensitive care to a nurses patientÃ¢â¬â¢s he or she must first assess their own beliefs, values, and culture at large. TheRead MoreHeritage Assessment1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs a measurement tool, heritage assessment helps a person appreciate further his cultural background, find strengths in his personality (based from his specific cultural background), and work on weaknesses that he has. Unlike other assessment tools, this is a quantitative-based approach aimed at threshing out a personÃ¢â¬â¢s family, religious and ethnic background that Influences the healthcare delivered to that person or to their culture The greater the number of the positiv e responses shows the personÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreHeritage Assessment1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHeritage Assessment NRS-429V | Culture and Cultural Competency in Health Promotion John Thomas 3/24/13 The Heritage Assessment tool is primarily used as a device to evaluate health maintenance, health protection, and health restoration of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural beliefs and values (Spector, 2006). This assessment helps aid in providing quality patient care in that it helps to meet and respect the needs of different types of people and their respective backgrounds (Spector, 2002). This particularRead MoreHeritage Assessment963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHeritage Assessment Tracie Bigelow Grand Canyon University: 429V Melinda Darling September 29, 2013 Heritage Assessment Culture is defined as the beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society group place of time (Culture, 2013). The heritage assessment tool is a great method used to assess health maintenance, protection, and restoration of each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural beliefs. The heritage assessment tool is often used by healthcare providers to help determine different culturalRead MoreHeritage Assessment968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHeritage Assessment Angel S. Winnie Grand Canyon University: NRS429V May 17, 2013 Heritage Assessment The heritage assessment tool is a checklist used by professionals to gain knowledge of patientÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and beliefs prior to initiating care. (Spector, 2000). There are many different cultures in this country, brining different beliefs in health, illness, recovery, death, and life. The heritage assessment tool is an important measure towards better understanding of cultural competency,
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Write about theSociology for Marxian Idea of Egalitarianism. Answer: Introduction The term egalitarian society refers to such a social construct in which there is no evidence of inequality or discrimination in any aspect. An egalitarian society is expected to take care of the poor and weak members, treat all of its members with equal dignity, and provide equal opportunities for all, irrespective of caste, class, gender, age and economic status. This type of societies discourages any kind of discrimination and works towards creating an environment, where equality is promoted. The society strives to achieve equal distribution and opportunities with respect to income, skills, capacities, affordability and freedom (Hirose, 2014). Marxian Idea of Egalitarianism Marxism believes that the advent of revolution is required and is evident which will establish a socialistic construct and will eventually result in a communist structure. Marx did not accept egalitarianism as a mere societal sub-ordination to one universal interest. He believed in a classlessness where the residents are entitled to get the privileges and opportunities not according to their abilities but according to what they need (Veneziani, 2012). Egalitarianism and Australian Society The society of Australia is widely considered as one of the primary promoters of the egalitarian construct of living. The country, as believed by many, has worked significantly, in reducing discriminations in an overall framework. The country, being one of the global leaders in the economic scenario, has also succeeded in different societal and welfare aspects. The country has reduced gender discriminations substantially, increased the overall participation in attaining higher education, has recorded sustained period of lowering unemployment and the prosperity of the economy has to some extent seen to be percolated to the low income and less privileged sections of the society (Grant et al., 2012). The country, apparently, does not have any class based or income based stratification and is said to be striving to achieve a society there is no class-based struggle and the significance and contribution of all the residents are equally valued. The taxation and the budgetary system of the economy are such that they promote equality in distribution of welfare in the society by taxing the poor less and the rich more. This indicates towards the presence of egalitarianism in the society and also to some extent relates to the Marxian view of an equal society (Saunders Wong, 2013). However, the country being primarily capitalistic and with the provisions of private properties, in reality cannot associate with the views of Marx. Also the society of Australia, though taken to be egalitarian per se, if studied carefully shows several loopholes, which are discussed in the following sections. Drawbacks In the recent social scenario in the country, several issues are cropping up, which are challenging the existence of egalitarian society. Some of which are as follows: Much of the traditional political goals of the country, of attaining equal welfare for all, are being challenged in the recent times due to the presence of hostility and intoxication in the Federal Coalition which, by taking control of the economy is intervening in the traditional areas and giving rise to radicalism in society as a whole. The second factor contributing to the slipping of egalitarianism from the society is the recent threat of unemployment. Unemployment, as discussed above had decreased substantially in the past few decades with new opportunities coming in thereby increasing the welfare of the residents in general. However, the recent polarization in the employment sector has led to creation of employed poor. These people, though employed, are not enjoying a life of standard quality. Much of it is attributed to underemployment, low payment, casual types of jobs and lack of entitlement to the facilities which a proper employee should be eligible to receive. The labor market is also getting distorted due to the increasing burden of dependency ration in the economy (Mays Marston, 2016). The geographical location differences are also contributing to the distortions in quality of life as much of the status and employment scopes are not available to those families which are living in the remote areas, with third world conditions prevailing in many of these remote areas. This indicates towards a prevalence of inequality with respect to employment and service opportunities in the economy. If seen minutely, a dualistic trend can be seen to be developing in the education and health sectors of the country also, with two types of privileges, one for rich and one for the poorer section. The residents are not much trustful when the government is concerned and there exist an attitude of materialism and competitive way of operating, these two being highly contrasting to the characteristics of an egalitarian society (Cole, 2014). Conclusion and Recommendation From the above discussion, it is evident that the societal construct of Australia, though boasts to be a staunch egalitarian one, in the recent times, are showing several dominating traits, which are not at par with the requirements of an egalitarian society. The country, in order to achieve back their title of one of the most successful egalitarian society, needs to work on increasing their social mobility and work on designing policies which help in expanding the capacities of the people in general. The society should emphasize on increasing equal distribution of facilities like education, skill, transport and employment, especially focusing on those who suffer highly from the affordability issues and for doing this the government can draw resources from the exiting pro-rich development policies. References Cole, B. (2014). Egalitarianism.Guardian (Sydney), (1648), 7. Grant, S., Kajii, A., Polak, B., Safra, Z. (2012). Equally-distributed equivalent utility, ex post egalitarianism and utilitarianism.Journal of Economic Theory,147(4), 1545-1571. Hirose, I. (2014).Egalitarianism. Routledge. Mays, J., Marston, G. (2016). Reimagining equity and egalitarianism: The basic income debate in Australia.J. Soc. Soc. Welfare,43, 9. Saunders, P., Wong, M. (2013). Examining Australian attitudes to inequality and redistribution.The Journal of Australian Political Economy, (71), 51. Veneziani, R. (2012). Analytical Marxism.Journal of Economic Surveys,26(4), 649-673.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The Polis During the Archaic Period of Ancient Greece, many communities segregated themselves into small, subdivided city-states. Such cities were small, but managed to establish the very roots of democracy today. The term ?polis? can be defined as an independent state governed by its population. Such a definition is accurate, however also could be considered broad and constricted. In deeper aspects, the polis was an organized state or community that worked together in upholding equivalent rights with an effort to prevent tyranny, or a state governed by one person. The polis went through extensive political efforts to maintain its unity and natural rights. Such qualities of a state led to other enhancements of the polis such as the social, religious, and economic aspects of joined community. The polis developed shortly after Cultural Revolution of ancient Greece during the early Archaic Period. During this time period almost every aspect of life went experienced a major change. Socially and politically Greece began to develop greater stability. Unlike other areas, which developed mostly into personal leadership, Greece followed an antagonistic political principle of unity and basic equality. The polis emerged from such political ideology to form a state of equal ?natural? rights and the absence of tyranny. Some of the major reasons why Greece did not develop single rulers were because of financially weak kings, weapons which made war chiefs obsolete in strategic commanding, geographical isolation, and a simplicity of Greek life which withheld principles of equality. Such conditions helped curve the development of the polis. Politically, the polis was known to be well established. The political structure of the polis was based upon its value of equal representation and natural rights. Therefore the major office was filled with different officials managing different aspects of the community. One official might conduct religious ceremonies, another official would control civil aspects, and son on. Such members of the cabinet were only temporary, and were replaced on a regular basis to avoid anyone gaining too much political strength. Individually, citizens of the polis had equal rights and commitments to their communities. Every citizen had an equal representation and say in their beliefs and ideas which would strengthen their community. Likewise, everyone also had equal votes and voices to elect officials in performing higher tasks. Eventually such officials grew into a council which Gained higher roles and duties parallel with the growing population. In time political and military organizations began fighting with other independent states over possession of farmland and other important geographical aspects. As the population of such states grew, complications did as well. However the polis continually managed to maintain its ideology of communal unity. (Starr, p.206) Socially the polis contained moral and ideal qualities that are still contained in modern democracy. Aside from equal representation, citizens of the polis had great appreciation for their state in government, and worked collectively to preserve such a state. Their society was composed of equal citizens who constantly worked to supply their needs for both survival and growth. Although the polis did consist of several classes, none were distinguished too sharply and everyone was focused more on their community rather than themselves. The social classes of a typical polis consists of an upper class where one must be a citizen without a job but a method of high income. A member of the upper class would also be free from economic tasks such as trading or farming, but instead must get slaves or others to attend material concerns such as property and fortune. Only by such liberation of work can an upperclassman find time for government, war, literature, and philosophy. The Greeks also believed there must be a leisure class, or there would be no standard for good taste, no encouragement of the arts, and no civilization. Such a class fell into the category of the middle class. The middle class also had a large number of non-citizens from foreign birth. Although they were ineligible for citizenship, they would spend their lives professionally as merchants, contractors, tradesman, craftsman, and artists. In fact a large portion of the ceramic industries of some cities were owned by the middle class. Such occupations and economic liberty far outweighed the downside of non-citizenship. Although they were unable to